Seabed Abysmal: February 2012 z35W7z4v9z8w

Spectacular abyssal creatures of the sea .Discover deep ocean creatures.

February 27, 2012

Blackbeard the Pirate, Queen Anne's Revenge Shipwreck Project

Sponges, Underwater Web Video Series

UBoats, Underwater Web Video Series

Fiji, Underwater Web Video Series



Nautical web series focuses on shipwrecks, history, biology, marine life and undersea research. Nautilus Productions creates high end documentaries and markets HD stock footage and video in many formats. Subjects range from sharks, shipwrecks, marine life and the military to Blackbeard the Pirate and his flagship the Queen Anne's Revenge.

Manatees, Underwater Web Video Series



Nautical web series focuses on shipwrecks, history, biology, marine life and undersea research. Nautilus Productions creates high end documentaries and markets HD stock footage and video in many formats. Subjects range from sharks, shipwrecks, marine life and the military to Blackbeard the Pirate and his flagship the Queen Anne's Revenge.

Shark Week 2012 on Discovery

February 25, 2012

Spectacular museum of underwater sculpture in Cancun

                  

Two years ago the British artist Jason De Caries Taylor proposed the brilliant idea of ​​creating a museum of impressive sculptures under the sea with the aim of recovering the marine ecosystem.

It was about 400 sculptures, exact copies of the coastal inhabitants of the cities of Cancun and Isla Mujeres. Taylor got in his work an almost photographic likeness: according to witnesses, the sculptures have the same height as the people who copy and "lifelike".

             

The project was carried out with the donations of the people and local companies. The first 100 figures cost him about $ 350,000 to the sculptor.

The exhibition, located at a shallow (about 9 meters), is entitled 'The silent evolution' ('The Silent Evolution') pursuing the noble goal of preserving nature: to recover the ecosystem suffer destruction of divers.

  

The word "evolution" was used not by chance: the basic material with which the sculptures are built is the concrete, which has the same rate that the pH of seawater.

This factor, together with the porous surface of the figures, gave an ideal environment for marine creatures such as, polyps that have a skeleton of lime, jellyfish and sea anemones.

Researchers predict that coral reefs could be extinct in 2050

                       

The report 'Reefs at Risk Revisited', made by experts in environmental conservation reveals that only urgent action to restrict overfishing and stop global warming, the planet is at risk of losing coral reefs forever, to the year 2050.

The warming of the seas caused by climate change, carbon dioxide pollution, maritime transport and excessive fishing, along with the urbanization of the coastal zone, are destructive to corals if they continue at the same rate of disappearance, are in danger of extinction to within about forty.

Corals are not only an attraction for tourists from the beaches of the Indian Ocean and Asia. Without them, millions of coastal dwellers will be deprived of an important source of income, while the coasts lose the natural protective barrier against storms. Not to mention the ecosystem, as a third of all marine species depend on the existence of corals.

According to scientists, to improve the situation must immediately make severe cuts in fishing and limit emissions of carbon dioxide.

The Great Barrier Reef has lost more than half of their coral

                       

During the past 50 years, the coral vegetation in the Great Barrier Reef', the largest reef in the world, halved, reports WWF Australia. These corals are part of a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Also, the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF, for its acronym in English) reports that more than a thousand turtles dying were thrown to the beaches in Queensland state last year and a rare marine species are dying in fishing nets while the state administration is not able to limit industrial development that causes this.

The destruction of the corals will be the focus of the visit of the experts of the World Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO planning to travel to Queensland next March.

The Committee has already expressed "extreme concern" about the development of the port of Gladstone, where a terminal is built to transport natural gas, and the dredging fund in the region of corals.

The Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef in the world. Located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland in northeast Australia, and lies about 2,600 kilometers in length. It consists of nearly 3,000 reefs, representing 10% of the world's coral surface.

February 24, 2012

Researchers discover that the fear of fish smells like sugar

                        

When a fish is damaged warning to other exuding a substance known as Schreckstoff ('things that go bump' in German).

Previously not known composition, but now scientists have discovered that this is a special type of sugar found in abundance in the skin of fish. The corresponding study was carried out by a group of researchers from Singapore and Switzerland.

To clarify the nature of the 'substance alertadora', the study authors conducted a series of experiments on fish Danio rerio originating from Southeast Asia, often used in aquariums.

The researchers added water inhabited by these fish several chemicals that are usually on the skin of these animals and observed their behavior.

The researchers found that the Schreckstoff contains chondroitin (complex carbohydrate whose molecules are composed of tens, hundreds or thousands of monosaccharide molecules) and found that the fish began to shake and hide in the bottom of the aquarium to feel the presence of a this saccharide mixture.

The Schreckstoff sugar and these fragments are recorded in a specific part of the fish brain, located in the olfactory bulb, allowing you to say that the fear of fish 'smell' like sugar.

"The results provide the solution to a puzzle of 70-year history: the true nature of this alarm," said the professor of the University of Singapore Suresh Jesuthasan. However, for scientists remains an unsolved mystery: why fish emanate danger signal if this brings no benefit to the sender.

Spectacular lobster caught in U.S.

   

An impressive 12-kilogramoss lobster was caught in the U.S., have nicknamed Rocky and can boast of being one of the largest lobsters that have ever seen.

Rocky is more than a meter long and with these dimensions, nobody is surprised to have name of a boxer.

This lobster was caught by a fisherman, Robert Malone, in Atlantic waters that bathe the state of Maine, northeastern United States. Although the owner could bring a fortune, Malone has had the willingness to donate to the state aquarium Bootbay Harbor.

However, measures have not reached Rocky's record in power with plenty of slack for a copy caught in Nova Scotia that weighed over 18 kilograms. Anyway, our hero can be proud, because so far the largest member of the aquarium that will go not reach the 2 kilogramoss.

A Rocky expect, then, a long and successful life with this egregious size. The industry also is suffering the effects of the crisis that is causing a decline in the price of this precious seafood. According to AP, in 2010 were captured only in Maine more than 42 million kilos, with a turnover of 300 million, approximately.

Whales and dolphins playing in Hawaiian waters

                         

Many species interact in the wild, most often as predator and prey. But recent encounters between humpback whales and bottlenose dolphins reveal a playful side to interspecies interaction.

In two different locations in Hawaii, scientists watched as dolphins "rode" the heads of whales:

     

The whales lifted the dolphins up and out of the water, and then the dolphins slid back down. The two species seemed to cooperate in the activity, and neither displayed signs of aggression or distress. Whales and dolphins in Hawaiian waters often interact, but playful social activity such as this is extremely rare between species.

The latest Bio Bulletin from the Museum's Science Bulletins program presents the first recorded examples of this type of behavior. Visitors to AMNH may view the video in the Hall of Biodiversity until February 9, 2012.

February 22, 2012

Land animals living deeper

                         

Four new species of animals were discovered in the cave-Voronya Krubera, the most deep in the world.Two species were described by researchers as the arthropods found deeper in the planet.

A Russian Spanish expedition discovered the animals in the cave-Voronya Krubera in Abkhazia, a territory near the Black Sea. The cave reaches 2,191 meters and is unique in the world which is over two miles deep.

Despite numerous previous scientific expeditions to this site, is the first time that manages to describe the fauna.

The animals are adapted to life in extreme ground conditions, especially the total lack of light and the scarcity of food resources. None of the arthropods have eyes and lack of pigmentation.

"What is most striking is the presence of animals at that depth because they have had to come from abroad for thousands of years," said a member of the expedition.

The new species, which were identified by experts from the University of Navarra, belong to the arthropod invertebrate group known as springtails.

"The last record was far springtail 550 meters in a cave in a mountain range in the Iberian Peninsula. This would be the most spectacular case because the man has reached this depth very recently," said one of the authors of the study .

To reach the depth of the cave, experts from an inlet down to 2,500 meters high on a mountain.

The group of Collembola is known in English as a springtail or tail spring, "because they have an odd appendage on the body and when they feel threatened at once and deploy it are able to jump 40 or 50 times its body length is as if we saltáramos 100 meters. "

Because they have no eyes, replaced by nerve endings that sensitivity covered with a thin layer of skin with small holes through which chemicals enter.

Neurons detect these odors. The same thing happens in our nose, except that the sensitivity shown by these animals is far greater than the human nose, because the area used for this function is very large in comparison. Food or predators released into the air molecules and they are capacaces to detect and decide what is in front ..

The species, which are between one and four millimeters, were found at different depths.

Their names are Anurida stereoodorata, Deuteraphorura kruberaensis, profound and ultimately Schaefferia Plutomurus ortobalaganensis, discovered the greatest depth, 1,980 meters below the surface.

Bermeja: The lost island in the Gulf of Mexico

                                      

In Google Maps appears Bermeja Island, a small rock located about 100 miles north of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico, but in reality the island is missing and no trace of it.

Various exploratory missions have come to where it should be assumed that, guided by data from the sailors and cartographers found and described in the past, and the result was always the same: NO EVIDENCE OF ITS EXISTENCE.

The enigma, in principle, there should be more geopolitical significance. This is a rock with no apparent importance. But the value associated with the island Bermeja is incalculable. Not because of what it contains, but for what it determines.

If found, would move to the northern boundary of the territorial waters of Mexico bordering the U.S., which would allow Mexicans take over the sovereignty of four-fifths of the area of ​​western donut hole, a region Gulf of Mexico with large reserves of oil, gas and minerals.

The question of the mysterious disappearance of Bermeja Island became the capital at the end of last century, when Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo was negotiating with U.S. President Bill Clinton, a treaty on the delimitation of the Continental Shelf.

Mexico had already made diplomatic moves in the UN to ensure control of the Hoya de la Dona. The spearhead of the Mexican position was Bermeja island, but when in 1997 pulled out of negotiations, it turned out that was not where all the maps come from placing the sixteenth century.

With so surprising loss, the Mexican government ordered a military mission that locate the island. It was a lot of money and a lot of territory which was at stake.

The Navy ship "Onjuku" traveled to the latitude indicated on the maps to corroborate the existence of the island. The sonar "Onjuku" could not find traces of the supposed island wide radius around the coordinates indicated.

Finally, Zedillo and Clinton signed the agreement on November 28, 2000, leaving the area of ​​interest and the wealth of its funds under U.S. control. Some estimates put at more than 22,000 million barrels oil that Mexico lost to be deprived of the Gulf area that bears his name.

The case of Bermeja Island especulacines fed all sorts of conspiracy. Many did not understand how a piece of land first mentioned in 1570 and mentioned in official publications as late as 1946 he had suddenly evaporated.

A group of senators of the opposition PAN demanded the opening of a formal investigation, while growing the voices pointing to startling theories. It was said that the CIA would have flown the island and even pointed to the collusion of the negotiators of the treaty by Mexico to the interests of the United States.

The legislators who demanded an official inquiry about said that "there is ample suspicion that immersion was caused by the influence of man." The environment question was: "Are the Americans able to have sunk the island to keep the oil? '.

The scientists would answer. Jaime Urrutia, of the Institutes of Geophysics, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), said that with a hydrogen bomb could be made an island disappear, but considered such a possibility highly unlikely in this case. Yeah said that small islands may disappear as a result of erosion caused by waves.

The issue ended up being the subject of a parliamentary inquiry, whose leaders commissioned a report to the UNAM. In 2009, the university ship "Justo Sierra" repeated the voyage of the "Onjuku" to finish drawing the same conclusions.

In that place there is no trace of that island or has ever existed. The missions have visited the site and have probed the seafloor is described as a plain, so it is possible that in these latitudes was no island before.

The official scientific explanation, which was endorsed by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI), is that the island never existed or was Bermeja confused with another.

Far from buying the versions point to the machinations of the U.S. secret services, the idea prevails that the mystery is due to an error map that has been perpetuated over the centuries.

February 21, 2012

Strange fish with "wings" and "legs" in China 02/20/2012

                                Un extraño pez con "alas" y "piernas" en China

Spectacular images of a strange fish was found by a man in a Chinese market.It looks like a red snapper in color, but your body is folded fins that seem "wings" and "legs", as shown in the "fisher" who teaches on camera.

          

Alien Monsters of the deep, Feb 20, 2012.mp4

February 20, 2012

Alarming thawing destroys things in the Danube River

                                         

A sudden thaw filled the bed of the River Danube of ice blocks that have destroyed his ships and marine passage near Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.

Temperatures reached this weekend, after several days of frost, which caused the breaking away of pieces of ice on the river banks.

Some boat owners have tried to take the boats of the river, but the blocks of ice up to one meter thick, moving at high speed.

It is reported that a floating restaurant was submerged after being hit by the ice and moorings and docks have been removed from their bases.

Following the recent drops in temperatures, which killed 200 people in Europe, nearly 1,800 kilometers of Danube were blocked with ice.

Marine scientists proposed mobile nature reserves for marine species

                                          

The idea that only fixed ocean areas can be designated as marine reserves became obsolete, and which experts say does not reflect the dynamic behavior of some of the ocean creatures.

Marine scientists called attention to this at a conference of the AAAS, a festival dedicated to science in Vancouver, Canada.

Ensure that the huge amounts of data through studies that track the animals demand a new attitude about marine conservation.

"Less than 1% of the ocean is protected today, and these marine areas tend to be bounded around non-mobile sites, such as coral reefs or seamounts," said Professor Larry Crowder, from Stanford University.

"But studies show that tracking many organisms-fish, marine mammals and seabirds, sea turtles and sharks depend on oceanographic features that have no fixed point."

"These features are fronts or eddies that can be moved on a seasonal, summer to winter, and year after year can be formed according to oceanographic changes such as El Niño Pacific Oscillation or Ten."

The challenge now, according to Crowder and other scientists, is trying to build a system of marine reserves to be as dynamic as the creatures that must be protected.

This new thinking is caused in part by the huge amount of data resulting from labeling projects. All kinds of creatures are being tracked over long distances, with increasingly sophisticated systems dedicated to it.

Many of the innovations that have improved the performance and functionality of cell phones are being incorporated into the latest generation of marine labels.These devices not only record where animals go, they capture the state information of the oceans.

February 19, 2012

Stunning images of shark attacking a hagfish

                                           

The most striking quality of the hagfish is its ability to expel a "jelly" when attacked by a predator, this is possible because there are hundreds of pores on your skin with the quality of secreting a viscous material and sticky when animal is bitten or bothered.

In this video you can see how your defense mechanism when attacked by a shark and later by other marine predators :

      

Hagfish are among the most primitive living vertebrates and some scientists disagree in their classification as vertebrate skull as though they have no spine.

Besides lacking jaws and instead have a "double language" with teeth that attach to their prey, often feeding on the viscera of larger animals, sometimes introduced to roerlos live specimens, but usually feed on carrion.

Perceived by taste buds located on their skin, have only one nostril and his eyes are very rudimentary, and in any case its habitat in the deep sea, make it difficult to view as the sun barely.

His main heart has two chambers, and they can have up to 5 additional hearts: 2 quarters, 2 volumes and a portal. These animals are elongated, similar in appearance to the lampreys or eels.

February 17, 2012

Spectacular image of a "carpet shark" swallowing a bamboo shark

                                     

National Geographic has just published a photo of a shark completely engulfing another shark. It is a Wobbegong or "shark carpet" eating a bamboo shark.

This picture was taken by Daniela Ceccarelli, researcher at the Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies Research Council of Australia.

While conducting a census of fish populations around the Big Island of Keppel, the researcher saw a copy of bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum) resting on the seabed. What he noticed was the color white, almost transparent.

                              

When approached to investigate, Wobbegong was set in motion. This could see the bamboo shark's head was inside the mouth of another shark, and that it was completely dead. By his own account, does not believe this is the first time you see this behavior, but the first time is captured in photo.

It was known that these "carpet sharks" hunted other sharks, and appearing in their stomach contents. What is surprising in this case is the size of the dam.

The Wobbegongs are predators that hunt hiding. They can feed on large prey that engulf whole because their jaws can dislocate, just as happens in many snakes.

To make this task easier for them, their teeth are curved backwards, and are tearing the flesh of their prey as they swallow.

February 16, 2012

How marine species survive the acidity of the oceans?

                                          

Mexican scientists found what may be the adaptation of marine species at a high level of acidity in the seas.

The phenomenon occurs in the Gulf of California, northwest of the country, which assesses the possibility of exploiting geothermal energy.

In this area, known as the Wagner basins and Consag, researchers from the Institute of Geophysics, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) found species that, unlike other regions in the world have survived an environment with high level of acidification .

At first glance the shells of snails and hedgehogs body did not seem affected, says Rosa Ledesma Prol, a researcher at the Institute and participating in the project. The phenomenon is still under analysis.

Wagner and Consag basins are located at the head of the gulf, right in the mouth of the Colorado River that carries an unknown amount of fertilizer runoff from agricultural fields in Mexico and the United States.

The region is part of the San Andreas Fault, where it joins the North American and Pacific plates. In the zone earthquakes occur frequently and therefore is also an area with high potential for geothermal energy.

In these waters scientists found methane UNAM and high doses of carbonic acid, generated by the contact of water with carbon dioxide in the air there.

It is a process that began perhaps thousands of years, but that represents a lethal mix for the exoskeleton (shell) of some mollusks and other marine life, remember Prol Ledesma.

"An acidic environment dissolves the carbonates quickly. You can test if you have a pussy, leave it in vinegar or water with gas and will be undone," he explains.

The researchers collected more than 30,000 samples are analyzed to find out what could adapt.
"In preliminary taxonomic analyzes are not observed significant changes but we must study well the agencies. We are just finishing the stage of identification of samples," says Ledesma Prol.

A high level of acidity decreases the amount of calcium carbonate formed in calcareous phytoplankton, based on the food chain in the oceans.

In addition, some species significantly reduce its ability to defend, because the shells that protect them lose strength.It also affects the formation of coral, and threatens the survival of the species associated with this organization.

Mexico is particularly sensitive to this problem: its shores is located near the second largest coral reef in the world after Australia.

The process of ocean acidification is directly related to the emission of gaseous pollutants at the same time have caused the effect of global climate change, says the researcher at the UNAM.

Scientific studies warn that the problem substantially change the underwater ecosystem.

The mystery of the spines of sea urchins

                                            

It was known that the urchin spines were resistant components of calcium carbonate, whose natural forms are a more fragile than others.

What is not known is that the spines are especially glass components. Indeed, X-ray studies that conducted a German team of scientists showed that the spines are made of both 'bricks' of calcite crystal as 'mortar' non-crystalline.

The results were reported in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Urchin spines serve as a defense against predators because they are strong and at the same time cushion the blows. As a result of these properties, these spines are among the most studied biomaterials.

However, it has been difficult to obtain conclusive results on how these spines are generated.

If the powerful spines were a single crystal should break cleanly into pieces, as would the mica or slate. However, the spikes do not break, but which are crushed as ceramics or glass.

To investigate thoroughly, the scientists studied samples collected urchins Beijing, China, with a sophisticated image display techniques.

X-ray tests showed scattering patterns indicating "bricks" of 200 nanometers in size.

Throughout the investigation, the needs and resources were aumentndo. They started with a standard light microscope, followed by electron microscopes to see and ended up in one of the centers of X-ray investigation of more sophisticated in the world, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France.

The team found that the structure is made of "bricks" of calcite crystals in 92% who are stuck with 8% of "mortar" of calcium carbonate has no crystalline structure.

Material, whose observation is needed to microscopes with large scales, they called in English, mesocrystal, which is precisely this mix of glass and calcium.

February 15, 2012

Posidonia oceanica: the oldest living thing on the planet

                                           

A group of scientists has found in the Mediterranean to the oldest living thing known.This is the species Posidonia oceanica, one of the few marine higher plants can live up to 200,000 years. So far, the record had it a kind of bush Tasmania with more than 43,000 years.

Along the Mediterranean can be found seagrass meadows of great extent, in some places to occupy more than 15 kilometers.

These meadows are formed by a single genetic lineage, which means that all plants are actually clones of the first to be settled.

To calculate the age of the plant genome has been sequenced and studied their growth. As the article says, this plant grows very slowly, about an inch each year.

In order to occupy the area present the first issue would have to be at least 12,500 years. More realistic estimates put it at the 200,000 years.

This is so for two reasons. First, the seagrass is able to reproduce vegetatively. Small fragments of the plant stem portions generally, can result in complete plants through the same mechanism that allows many plant cuttings gardening.

The second reason is due to its rhizome, an underground stem in which food accumulates and grows horizontally, parallel to the ground. Rhizome exits this stems, allowing the plant extends over a much larger area.
Generally, these rhizomes are just starting and separating, but plants that have formed are maintained. And these plants are actually clones of each other.

The importance of Posidonia oceanica can not only for being the longest living organism. It is a fundamental part of the ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea, as it helps to establish the substrate on which other species live, work performed water purification and provide food for many species, to name some of the environmental services it offers.

The researchers have used to highlight another fact: the Posidonia is declining. The increase in temperature and water acidity is affecting a lot to this species.

Moreover, the propellers of the boats, especially pleasure, is reaping these meadows as if it were grass.

Aurea swastika is found a hundred meters to 3,000 meters deep in Antarctica

                                          

A Russian expedition in Antarctica that has lasted 20 years there has found a giant swastika gold at 3,000 meters deep in a lake called Vostok.

The expedition itself, in principle geological reasons, appears in various media officials as the agency Ria Novosti, with the particularity that echo the above theory that Nazi sailors under the command of Karl Donitz would have established a base ground there, which would have kept the secret files of Hitler and his remains.

According Sorcha Faal, the issue that has been five days "lost" would have found that database, which does not appear explicitly in the information in the official Russian agency, but, dimly.

The Ria Novosti news even gets to propose that would have tried to clone Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun, shocking theory for a formal means, but when continue to propose that some Nazi officials arrived in Argentina (conspiranoica view of history) .

Sorcha Faal information abounds on what has sustained this page in recent months, in the sense that the Nazi capitulation with the Yankees was the release of part of the national Zionist leaders in exchange for secret atomic bomb and, Hold on, the flying saucer.

This information is postulated that the Roswell incident was carried out by German engineers Walter and Reimar Horten, who already have developed flying saucers.

Scientists argue that life could have been born in the volcanic lakes

                                         

The first primitive cells could have been given life in freshwater lakes and warmed and fed by micronutrient prehistoric geothermal sources. The hypothesis is in Russian and American scientists who published an article on this subject in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences'.

Most geologists and evolutionary biologists believe that life on Earth in its modern form originated in the primordial ocean waters that once covered most of the planet's surface.

It is believed that the ocean contained a large number of amino acids and other elements 'gave life' to the first living cells.

The group of geologists and evolutionary biologists led by the Russian Yevgeny Kunin, National Institute of Health in Bethesda (Maryland), offered a new argument for an alternative theory according to which life was 'born' in freshwater lakes , heated by hot water and steam from geothermal sources.

For the experiment the scientists 'moved' the volcanoes of the waters 'salty' to freshwater lakes in parts of land that existed in the early history of Earth.

They then compared the chemical composition of the cells with a set of elements in the geothermal water current lakes.

It turned out that the volcanic lakes were the most favorable areas for life. As the researchers, only in these waters were developed sufficient conditions for the formation of the basic structures of proteins and other important molecules that form the basis of the cell.

According to scientists, these lakes were formed after the interaction of water that reaches the Earth with meteorites in depth.

Water in its 'transfer' to the deeper layers collected ions of potassium, sodium and other important elements, and returned with them in the form of geothermal steam, which eventually was deposited into the lake.

Geologists believe that these conditions could exist stably for many millions of years.

February 13, 2012

Did you know that corals inflate to avoid being buried alive in the sand?

                                          

The Corals give the impression of solid structures, almost inert, and yet are able to inflate to avoid being buried alive in the sand.

This was recorded in a surprising images captured by a scientist at the University of Queensland in Australia who used a photographic technique known as time-lapse, which is to take still images which are then reproduced at a rate determined

It was known that the species could be released from the sandy seabed, but did not know how. As you move sandy sediment on the seabed, corals have to breathe and to avoid suffocation.

To scroll, corals "inflate and deflate" parts of his body and, as shown in images taken by Bongaerts, use a similar technique to free when they are covered by sand.

 

Miao Keng: the deepest natural hole in the world

                                           

Miao Keng, in the Chinese province of Chongqing, is the deepest natural hole in the world, it  is connected to a network of caves and its depth is 509 meters. This well was discovered in September 2006.

Begins 150 meters below the surface and connected to a network of caverns.

But the wells are dug in deeper mines. The current record is Western Deep at Number 3 in the TauTona gold mine, west of Johannesburg, South Africa.It is seven times deeper than Miao Keng, about 3,900 meters. It was completed in 2008

                               

February 11, 2012

Scientists achieve record at 'chupacabras' marine

                        

For the first time scientists have witnessed the moment when a giant shark eats the other, and managed to record the fact on a reef in Australia.

The Order is a carpet shark ('Eucrossorhinus dasypogon') that usually flatten your body, and with a color that blends with the surrounding environment, and spends most of the time resting on the ocean floor.

Normally, small fish were fed or invertebrate, however, manages to dislocate the jaw with the aim to swallow larger prey.

Exactly that's what happened to a bamboo shark brown banda ('Chiloscyllium punctatum') to meet him.

The researchers, who captured the image for a visual census of reef fish in Australia and subsequently published in the journal 'Coral Reef', described the meeting as "the shark eats the shark."

Scientists report that during the observation period that lasted about 30 minutes, neither shifted animals, which means that the carpet shark would have taken at least several hours to completely consume their prey.

According to the scientists write, it was known that this phenomenon occurred, but the evidence had been obtained after examining the stomachs of sharks inside carpets.

However, images taken are the first visual record of this phenomenon.

February 10, 2012

Huge Hole In The Earth Opens!

Alien Artifact Found in Chalk at Avebury 2012



Ninety million years ago the chalk downland of Northern Europe was ooze accumulating at the bottom of a great sea. Protozoans such as foraminifera lived on the marine debris that showered down from the upper layers of the ocean.

Their shells were made of calcite extracted from the rich sea-water. As they died a deep layer gradually built up and eventually, through the weight of overlying sediments, became consolidated into rock. Later earth movements related to the formation of the Alps raised these former sea-floor deposits above sea leve

'Supergiant' amphipod discovered in deep sea near New Zealand

There are ordinary amphipods, known to be mostly tiny shrimp-like crustaceans that thrive in aquatic environments around the world, and now there are "supergiant" amphipods, which are 10 times larger and, frankly, quite freakish-looking



British scientists made the remarkable discovery by accident while participating in a joint expedition with New Zealand scientists to probe the depths of the Kermadec Trench, north of New Zealand.

Using a large metal trap outfitted with cameras, they'd hoped to haul up a species of deep-sea snailfish that had not been captured in more than 60 years. Instead they hauled up, from nearly 33,000 feet below, seven milky-white amphipods measuring to about 11 inches, or the size of small lobsters. (Ordinary amphipods barely exceed 1 inch.)

Dr. Alan Jamieson, from the University of Aberdeen's Oceanlab, said on the facility's website, "The moment the traps came on deck we were elated at the sight of the snailfish as we have been after these fish for years.

However, seconds later, I stopped and thought, 'What on earth is that?' It's a bit like finding a foot-long cockroach.

The mysterious find was not totally unprecedented. The term 'supergiant' was used by American scientists who hauled up unusually large amphipods off Hawaii in the 1980s.

Ghostly Yeti Crab Swarms Discovered Near Antarctica

For the first time, scientists have observed and filmed animals, including a fuzzy new species of crab, swarming hot volcanic vents near Antarctica. The ghostlike crabs feed on bacteria that live off minerals spewed from the hydrothermal vents.

Unusual and Weird Deep Sea Creatures 2012

Lake Vostok in Antarctica could be inhabited by unknown organisms.

                            

In the water from subglacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica, can inhabit bodies unknown to science, which can exist between a high concentration of oxygen. So says Sergey Bulat, a researcher at the Laboratory of Genetics of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of St. Petersburg.

"Science knows a kind of bacteria, 'lovers of oxygen." Where to find them in the lake, we could speak of a fundamental discovery in the field of evolution of human life. Otherwise, the lake would be the only place on Earth without life, "says the expert.

According to the researchers calculated, the waters of Vostok must be supersaturated oxygen, whose concentration is so high that bacteria known so far are not able to bear it.

On Wednesday, the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia confirmed that the country's scientists drilled a hole nearly four miles deep and reached a lake represents a unique ecosystem with a depth of about one kilometer.

The researchers believe that it is probably the oldest and purest water on the planet.

February 9, 2012

Paleontologists found a fossil of the world's oldest whale

                                        

An international team of paleontologists found fossils in Antarctica of a whale that lived 49 million years.These are the oldest remains of a whale or arqueoceto primitive in the world and are first found in Antarctic territory.

The fossils were discovered during an expedition in the formation known as The Plateau, near the base on the island Marambio Argentina, near the Weddell Sea, northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula.

The discovery was made by Claudia Tambussi Argentine paleontologists and Marcelo Reguero, the Silver Museum, the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET) and Argentine Antarctic Institute. Also participating in the Swedish research scientists Thomas Mors and Jonas Hagström, Natural History Museum in Stockholm.

The centerpiece is "a reconstructed jaw, about 60 centimeters, which lets you know that the origin of the lineage of this whale was further back than previously thought," said Tambussi.

The Antarctic arqueoceto Basilosauridae belongs to the group, which originated all cetaceans today.

In the Indo-Pakistan region were found fossils of primitive relatives of cetaceans date back 53 million years, but these whales amphibious, semiaquatic, Protocetidae with four legs.

The finding could indicate that archaeocetes evolved earlier than previously thought from its origins semiaquatic in what is now India and Pakistan.

Local Warming! alarming rise in ocean temperatures confirmed by NOAA

Worlds Biggest Shark Caught in Karachi Pakistan 7th Feb 2012

Hundreds of people gathered at a fish harbor in Pakistan's city Karachi on Tuesday to see a 40-feet long dead fish, a sight uncommon in the country during the past many years.The giant whale shark washed ashore on Tuesday but according to media reports it was spotted unconscious 10 days ago some 150 kilometers away from the fishery.

February 8, 2012

Investigators say the boat noise put under stress to whales

                             

The noise of the boats put under stress the whales that are near, says a boat propeller estudio.Las emit sounds at the same frequency range that some whales use to communicate and previous studies showed that cetaceans change their communication patterns in noisy.

Now the researchers measured stress hormones in the feces of whales and found that increased as the density of vessels.

The species studied in the Bay of Fundy in Canada, was the North Atlantic right whale is in danger of extinction. It was thought that the sixteenth century Basque whaling decimated their population.

However, more recent studies suggest that reducing their number was long before for reasons that are unclear.

Dr. Rosalind Rolland of the New England Aquarium in Boston, USA, who led the new study, said that an estimated current population is 490 individuals, after being in 350 individuals over a decade.

The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) moves up and down the east coast of North America, usually up to the Bay of Fundy in late summer to feed.

Aquarium scientists have been studying in the bay since 1980. But the new study in the journal Proceedings Royal Society B occurred by chance.

Stunning images of a 12-meter whale shark in Pakistan

                                

Pakistani fishermen found dead at a whale shark that mediates more than twelve meters in the coastal port city of Karachi Pakistan in the Arabian Sea.


The Pakistani television broadcast images of a curious crowd that rushed to the port to see what drew the heavy water animal.

The owner of the farm Charai, where the shark was not too sorry for the fish and sold it for 1.7 million rupees ($ 18,755), about 20 times more than expected to get at first.

The whale shark is considered the largest fish that exists and can sometimes grow to over 12 meters long.

According to Animal Facts and Feats book, a sort of Guinness World Records of animals, the largest specimen ever recorded was captured in 1947, also near Karachi, and measured 12'65 meters long and weighed 21.5 tons.

February 7, 2012

Russian scientists manage to reach the surface of Lake Vostok

                          

Russian scientists reached after more than three decades of drilling the surface of Lake Vostok is located about 3,800 meters under the Antarctic ice cap could save traces of ancient organisms.

An official Roshidromet, Russian agency meteorology and environmental monitoring, confirmed that the explorers reached the surface of Lake Vostok but gave no further details.

The base Vostok, the coldest place on earth where they have been recorded up to 90 degrees below zero.

Lake Vostok is about 35 million years and for 15 million years remained virtually isolated from the atmosphere and the surface biosphere.

The study of its unique ecosystem will help to outline a dash of natural climate changes over the next millennia. It will also help understand how different life forms on Earth were adapted to extreme conditions.

Soviet scientists began drilling works in the area in the 1970s as part of a program of paleoclimatic studies.

At that time ignorant of even the existence of Lake Vostok was discovered in 1996, with the help of British researchers.

In 1998, when there were about 130 meters to the lake surface, the drilling was suspended at the request of the international community for lack of a technology that could minimize the possible contamination of water.

The Mining Institute of St. Petersburg developed a special know-how for frozen samples without contaminating the lake water and the Antarctic Treaty signatory countries agreed in 2003 Russia's proposals on the matter. Two years later, construction of deep-drilling resumed.

Drilling was started 20 years ago, with temperatures up to 30 degrees below zero and working only 4 months a year (during the "Antarctic summer") until a wall of ice drilled from no more and no less than 3,748 meters thick .

Researchers hope to find microorganisms completely different and hope to dip a specialized robot for taking samples without affecting the ecosystem 15 million years.

The discovery will allow scientists to study the strange ways of life in the lake to survive the cold and lack of sunshine, which could give us more clues about possible extraterrestrial life on celestial bodies frozen, such as Europe, one of the satellites of gas giant Jupiter.

The next thing is to leave the area due to winter and back for samples in November 2012. Later, between 2013 and 2014, is expected to dip a robot to explore the depths of the lake also.

February 6, 2012

Spectaculars Worms of seabed throwing "light bombs"

                            

Scientists have discovered new and amazing creatures of the deep sea. These are several species of worm capable of launching small "light bombs" around. Something that can be very useful when fleeing from predators.

                       

The researchers made their discovery on the coasts of the Philippines and also in the U.S. and Mexico. A total of seven new species have been introduced at the same time, five of which have the rare ability to throw around little spheres that, when separated from her body begin to glow in a bright green. It is, as stated in their article, further evidence (the last for now) of how little we still know about the inhabitants of the deep ocean.

                                    

Familiarly called "green bombers", new species of worm are between 18 and 93 millimeters. And they were located through the use of remotely operated mini-submarines at depths ranging between 1,800 and 3,700 meters. The first species has been described bombiviridis Swima call due to its ability to drop bombs mentioned light.

Worms in the water move through several rows of thick hair that used like fins or oars. "The water depths between 1,000 and 4,000 meters explains Greg Rouse, study co-forming the largest habitat on Earth and also the least explored."

                                   

All species have found a series of elaborate appendages on the head. Five of them are equipped with mechanisms of luminescence. The "bombs" are made of a dense fluid in turn is released by the animal, shines for a few seconds and then fades slowly.

Because mini-submarine's own lights, scientists were unable to obtain images of the phenomenon in the natural environment, but they did after capture in the laboratory. And although they assume that light pumps are part of an elaborate defense mechanism, say further studies are needed to understand the process completely.

Scientists discover a new "ocean highway"

                                

A new "ocean highway" of whose existence no one knew was recently discovered by a team of Japanese and Australian scientists.

It has a flow forty times higher than the Amazon River and flows under the Indian Ocean, more than three thousand meters deep. The finding, to help better understand the Earth's climate, has just been published in Nature Geoscience.

"The current transports dense water rich in oxygen and sinking near Antarctica at great depths and head towards the far north," said Steve Rintoul, one of the authors. "In fact, without this contribution Antarctic water, the deeper layers of the ocean would have very little oxygen."

The role and influence of ocean currents on climate are well known. In fact, are responsible for storing and transporting a large amount of heat and carbon dioxide, which thus is not released to the atmosphere and slows the process of global warming.

"The current deep undersea Kerguelen Plateau is part of a global system of ocean currents that are critical when it comes to knowing how much heat the ocean can store carbon," adds the researcher.

Other expeditions were detected before evidence of this complex system of streams, but none of them had been able to determine the amount of water they carried.

The Australian-Japanese team used for their experiments different current meters anchored to the seafloor, at depths exceeding 4,500 meters.

Over a period of two years, the detectors hooked to the bottom floated to a depth of about three thousand feet, systematically measuring the flow velocity, temperature and salinity.

"The continuous measurements allowed us for the first time, determine how much water was transported northward this deep current," says Rintoul. It turns out that for more than twelve million cubic meters of water from segurndo Antarctica less than zero degrees and without being frozen, as it is mixed with salts and minerals.

"It was a real surprise to see how strong this trend," says the researcher. "With an average speed during two years of 20 cm per second, the current is strongest ever measured at depths of three miles beneath the sea surface."

To Rintoul, "Having a map of these systems of deep currents is an important step toward understanding the global network of currents that influence climate, both present and future. And our results show that the currents of Kerguelen Plateau make a large contribution to this global ocean circulation. "

The mysterious secret of the Argonauts

                                    

Since ancient biologists have wondered why, among all octopuses, only one, the female Argonaut, is able to generate around a thin spiral shell. So fragile (to the point of being called "paper nautilus"), which serves to protect themselves from predators. And so light that allows the animal to float weightless on the fence.

                      

For centuries, given that female Argonaut put and keep their eggs inside the shell, it was thought that, offering a sort of nest for their offspring, was precisely the main function of the curious structure.

A study by Australian biologists and published in the Journal of the Royal Society discovered the truth: the main function of the shell of the Argonauts is to allow the animal to ascend and descend in the water at will, thanks to "air capsules" ably used to regulate the depth without making any physical effort.

Which puts an end to long speculations on the role of those curious air bags, which many considered responsible for the octopus floating and drifting uncontrollably to be stranded on the beaches half a world. But biologists say the study shows that the air inside the shells of female Argonaut is not only beneficial for them, but essential for survival.

Indeed, thanks to these bags the Argonauts can choose exactly how deep they want to be by the simple method of "adjusting" the amount of air which absorb on the surface. A mechanism that gives them a great advantage over other octopuses, which to scroll up and down need to use a lot of muscle power.

The Argonaut, however, uses a kind of jet to descend effortlessly. As low (up to 750 m depth), increasing water pressure is reduced the volume of air within the shell, reaching an equilibrium in which the animal's weight and it vanishes just remains floating in a state similar to weightlessness.

Researchers believe that this extraordinary ability had remained hidden until now due to the fact that most previous studies have been conducted in aquariums, too shallow to allow the octopus to demonstrate their skills.

Despite its resemblance to the nautilus, another cephalopod with which he is often confused, the Argonaut is a real octopus with eight tentacles equipped with suckers around its central mouth. There are four known species live in temperate and tropical waters and is an important food source for whales, seals, fish and seabirds.

Females can grow to 50 cm and are able to make their shells, calcium carbonate secreting two bodies, similar to those spiders to spin off its cloth, placed in two of its tentacles. Males are much smaller, barely two inches, and can not make shells.

Spectacular images of the luminous creatures of the sea

                        

Scientists have discovered two species of bioluminescent creatures living on the seabed . This image shows the kidneys bright yellow and transparent purple mouth Swima fulgida, found off the coast of California, USA Details of the discovery were published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society of London.

                                       

Dr. Karen Osborn has been studying the functions of the Swima fulgida and his colleagues at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Research Institute Monterey Bay Aquarium in the U.S.

                        

Swima worms can grow to three centimeters long and use fan-shaped bristles to swim to depths of over 2,700 meters. There are bioluminescent in the dark depths of the ocean due to a chemical reaction in their bodies.

                               

The researchers collected samples of the worms for study in the laboratory, where they could identify bioluminescent structures. The chemicals responsible for the bioluminescence is shown in this photo green fluorescent.

                                  

The worms make use of small "bombs" that are released to distract predators and swim away from the threat.

                             

Another new species, Tawitawiensis Swima, was discovered off the coast of the Philippines for an international research group led by Larry Madin, of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, U.S. Unlike the species found off the U.S. west coast, this is orange.

                                         

Since 2003, nine species of worms have been discovered Swima using submersible vehicles operated by remote control.

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