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February 22, 2012

Land animals living deeper


Four new species of animals were discovered in the cave-Voronya Krubera, the most deep in the world.Two species were described by researchers as the arthropods found deeper in the planet.

A Russian Spanish expedition discovered the animals in the cave-Voronya Krubera in Abkhazia, a territory near the Black Sea. The cave reaches 2,191 meters and is unique in the world which is over two miles deep.

Despite numerous previous scientific expeditions to this site, is the first time that manages to describe the fauna.

The animals are adapted to life in extreme ground conditions, especially the total lack of light and the scarcity of food resources. None of the arthropods have eyes and lack of pigmentation.

"What is most striking is the presence of animals at that depth because they have had to come from abroad for thousands of years," said a member of the expedition.

The new species, which were identified by experts from the University of Navarra, belong to the arthropod invertebrate group known as springtails.

"The last record was far springtail 550 meters in a cave in a mountain range in the Iberian Peninsula. This would be the most spectacular case because the man has reached this depth very recently," said one of the authors of the study .

To reach the depth of the cave, experts from an inlet down to 2,500 meters high on a mountain.

The group of Collembola is known in English as a springtail or tail spring, "because they have an odd appendage on the body and when they feel threatened at once and deploy it are able to jump 40 or 50 times its body length is as if we saltáramos 100 meters. "

Because they have no eyes, replaced by nerve endings that sensitivity covered with a thin layer of skin with small holes through which chemicals enter.

Neurons detect these odors. The same thing happens in our nose, except that the sensitivity shown by these animals is far greater than the human nose, because the area used for this function is very large in comparison. Food or predators released into the air molecules and they are capacaces to detect and decide what is in front ..

The species, which are between one and four millimeters, were found at different depths.

Their names are Anurida stereoodorata, Deuteraphorura kruberaensis, profound and ultimately Schaefferia Plutomurus ortobalaganensis, discovered the greatest depth, 1,980 meters below the surface.

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